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Universidad Pública de Navarra
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Universidad Pública de Navarra

2014/4/8

New methodology to find out about yeast changes during wine fermentation

In his PhD thesis, Rubén Martínez, a graduate in Biology and Biochemistry, has developed a new methodology that makes it possible to know what physiological state the yeast is in at each point in the wine fermentation process. “By drawing an analogy with cinema,” he explained, "wine fermentation would be a full-length film from which, thanks to this methodology, we could extract all the stills that comprise it.” This knowledge is of particular interest for producers, since changes in the grape directly affect the chemical composition of the must.

The thesis entitled “Estudios avanzados de la fisiología de levadura en condiciones de vinificación. Bases para el desarrollo de un modelo predictivo” [Advanced studies into yeast physiology in vinification conditions. Bases for developing a forecasting model] is part of the Demeter project. This project seeks to study and find out the effects of climate change on viticultural and oenological activities, and to come up with new strategies to address the problems caused by global climate change on viticulture and wine production.

One of the effects of climate change on vineyards is the fall in their productivity, changes in the distribution of the pests and diseases that affect them, and changes in the chemical composition of the grape. “The main aim of this thesis is to contribute towards the development of a model to forecast the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast during the vinification process. This would make it possible to know in advance how this yeast responds to the changes (many of which are due to climate change) that are taking place in the chemical composition of grape must,” pointed out the author of this research.

Simulating the yeast’s metabolism

The main aim of this thesis was to contribute towards the development of a model for forecasting the metabolism of S. cerevisiae during the vinification process. This work has shown that an exhaustive and detailed study of the fermenting process allows the process to be divided into various stages or phases and that each one of them can be imitated in continuous cultivation. Another of the achievements has been to develop a model that enables the metabolism of the yeast to be simulated.

This thesis also demonstrates the need and importance of knowing the chemical composition of the must in the winery, in particular the nitrogen content that the yeast can assimilate and the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. “By knowing these two parameters,” pointed out the researcher, "it is possible to design different protocols for taking action during the fermenting process in order to improve the organoleptic quality of the wine".

Kimika, Nekazaritza, Unibertsitateak Go to top of page
Notes
Rubén Martínez-Moreno graduated in Biology (2009) and in Biochemistry (2009) at the University of Salamanca, before going on to do a Master’s in Oenology at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (2010), and has been awarded a PhD in Biotechnology from the NUP/UPNA-Public University of Navarre (2014). He currently works as an oenologist at Quercus Europe S.L. He has participated in various research projects, the results of which have been presented at over twenty conferences nationally and internationally. The most significant results have also been published in specialised international journals. While he was writing up his PhD thesis he joined the Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences (ICVV) in Logroño, and spent two periods of time at research centres; specifically at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona, Spain) and at the Technical University of Delft (Delft, the Netherlands).
Internet reference
www.unavarra.es/actualidad/berriak?pagina=1&contentId=180198
References
R. Martínez-Moreno, M. Quirós, P. Morales, R. Gonzalez (2014) New insights into the advantages of ammonium as winemaking nutrient. International Journal of Food Microbiology. (In Press). Available on line: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.020
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